Thursday, September 16, 2010

Deceived World and Cooper's Mystery Babylon

Caveat Lector

Excerpt: "Now, in that series of books (the titles are listed in the online article -ccc) it outlines the history -- as they have discovered it -- of a secret society whose sole purpose is to protect the bloodline of the family which, traditionally, throughout history has claimed the divine right to rule the rest of us. It's important that you know about that family, because the same people also rule this country, folks. They're all related, if you haven't figured that out yet. And if you want to find out how related they are, start looking into an organization, organized in [Cincinnati], called the Knights of the Golden Circle. The Knights of the Golden Circle." end excerpt - ccc

William Cooper's Mystery Babylon: Part 17 - Bibliography
Transcribed by Dok (edited/formatted by wakingup72 @

Good evening, folks, at home and around the world, and welcome to another edition of The Hour Of The Time. I'm William Cooper, and I strongly suggest that you have pen and paper by your side all during this episode of the Hour Of The Time, for I am going to be giving you a complete bibliography. You see, folks, I own a library that is better than most city libraries in this country. And I am going to give you the names, authors and publishing companies of the books that will start you off to bring you up to speed where I am at. And you're just going to get what you need to get to a beginning level tonight.

I suggest, if you can, that you tape record this episode of the Hour of the Time so that you can play the tape back and refer to it. If you do not have the facilities to do this, you may order a studio quality stereo tape done on a digital mixer from Stan Barrington.

(opening music: children reciting The Pledge of Allegiance, followed by a musical version of The Pledge of Allegiance, performed by Lee Greenwood)

Folks, if you’ve been listening to the Hour of the Time for some period now, then you know that we've only really had two sponsors. And the rest of the air time has been paid for by myself, Stan Barrington and many people who have sent in donations, some of them quite substantial. And I take this moment now to thank every single one of you, who have pulled your share of the load to make this show possible. Because I'm going to tell you right now, my family and Stan Barrington could not have ever come up with all the money that is needed to keep this show on the air.

And the only two sponsors we’ve had have been Backwoods Home magazine, which sponsored one program, and, also, the Pilot Connection, which, I believe, sponsored four programs. So, the rest of the air time was paid for personally out of my pocket and out of Stan Barrington’s pocket, and all of you wonderful people who sent in donations to keep this show on the air. From the bottom of our hearts and from the heartfelt thanks of all the people out there who really depend on this show to come into their homes five nights a week, we thank you sincerely. We appreciate your efforts and we know that some of you did without some things in your own lives to make those donations possible.

OK, folks, the first thing in the bibliography that you need to get started...I'm going to recommend to you is a book. This is a thick book. The title of it is Our Ageless Constitution. Our Ageless Constitution. Now, I'm not gonna say these things slow. I'm going to repeat everything twice, but I'm gonna keep on going because I have a lot of information to give you. Either make a tape of this broadcast or order the tape or, if you can, write fast and get the information down. But get it, because you need to read these books. You need them for your personal library, you need them to know what’s going on in the world, and who’s bringing it about.

Our Ageless Constitution, edited by W. David Stedman (S-T-E-D-M-A-N) and Lavaughn G. Lewis. It's part of the Stedman Liberty Library, published by W. David Stedman Associates. Now, I don’t know where you can order this book from, folks. I got it as I always get my books: used book stores, from people who find something and send it to me, from scrounging in thrift shops, from new book stores. I have a library that is unbelievable. Most of you would be awed by the books that I have. Most of my income throughout the years have gone toward stocking this library, simply because I learned a long time ago that the sum total of all man's knowledge is contained in books. But you have to root it out. Not all books are true, not all books tell the truth, not all books are all lies. It's sort of a mixture, but you have to have the information available to do the research and come up with the answers.

OK, and once you have that book, you have everything you need to know about the history, the ideals, the purpose, everything behind the founding of this country, and if you don’t know that, you don’t know anything about this country, so you need it.

The next book that I'm going to recommend, because you need to know the symbology and the history and who these people really are, is a book that was originally printed in the 1700’s. In fact, the's called the...the Templar’s chart -- the Masonic Chart, the Templar chart -- and the beginning has a letter to the editors of the New York Express, and its signed by Benjamin Franklin. It’s a very old book. It has the complete history, according to Freemasonry, of Freemasonry. It's entitled -- and this is the title of the book -- The True Masonic Chart or Hieroglyphic Monitor; Containing All the Emblems Explained in the Degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, Royal Arch, Royal Master, and Select Master: Designed and Duly Arranged Agreeably to the Lectures, by R.W. Jeremy L. Cross, G.L., to which are added illustrations, charges, songs, etc., with additions and emendations. Also, a complete history of Freemasonry by a brother. This copy that I have is the twelfth and stereotyped edition, printed in New York, published by A.S. Barnes and Company, 51 Johns St. in 1854.

You can find treasures like this if you look. Most people though sit back and say, "(nasally voice: Oh, I don’t know where to find that. I don’t know anything about doing research. Why don’t you tell me?" (laughs) That’s not the way to do it, folks...not the way to do it.

Second book I'm going to recommend here that you get is a book by Joseph Campbell, probably the world's foremost authority on myth and mythology. This book is entitled Primitive Mythology, the Masks of God. Again, it's by Joseph Campbell, Primitive Mythology, the Masks of God, and I believe it's printed by Penguin...Penguin Books.

OK, next one is also by Joseph Campbell, Occidental Mythology, the Masks of God, by Joseph Campbell. Entitled Occidental Mythology, The Masks of God. Also published by Penguin...Penguin Books.

Now I've got all these books stacked up around here, so if you hear a moment of silence, it's because I'm reaching for something. I literally have surrounded myself with stacks of books. I'm going to give you the title, author, and publisher of as many as I can, starting with the most important for you to use to get started with and working on that. [sic]

Next one is by Joseph Campbell again. The title is Creative Mythology, The Masks of God. Creative Mythology, The Masks of God[/i], also by Joseph Campbell and published by Penguin Books.

The next one, folks, is The Sacred and the Profane. The title is The Sacred and the Profane. The subtitle is, The Nature of Religion, the Significance of Religious Myths, Symbolism and Ritual Within Life and Culture, and it's by Mircea Eliade. Mircea Eliade -- it's actually translated from a foreign language. It's printed by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Next one is an important book once you get to...Once you get into the symbology of the Mystery Schools and the occult, you learn that geometry and Hermetic science become very important. Now, this book is entitled Occult Geometry and Hermetic Science of Motion and Number. Occult Geometry and Hermetic Science of Motion and Number, a combined edition by A.S. Raleigh. A.S. Raleigh, and this is published by Devorss...Devorss Publications. That’s spelled D-E-V (as in Victor)-O-R-S-S. And there’s some treasures in these books.

Now, these are books that most people pass by. They look at them and say, "Ah, this is...this is boring," or, "I would never learn anything from that." And most people would never even pick up one of these books. But, I'm telling you folks, you better start.

Next one is entitled Celestial Symbols. Celestial Symbols: Symbolism in Doctrine, Religious Traditions and Temple Architecture, by Allen H. Barber. Allen H. Barber, and this is published by Horizon Publishers. Sometimes you get to understand that even the names of the publishers, and, sometimes, the name of the authors, are symbolic. Horizon, as you already learned, means "Horus rising." Horizon Publishers and Distributors, Incorporated, PO Box 490, Bountiful, Utah. And that book contains some revelations.

Another one is entitled Many Moons. Many Moons: The Myth and Magic, Fact and Fantasy of Our Nearest Heavenly Body, by Diana Brueton, introduction by Col. James Irwin of the Apollo 11 mission. (laughs) Oh, yes, it gets very interesting...very interesting. And this is published by Prentice Hall Press, New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore. So I know you can find this book.

Now, we're going to get into some other areas now, and I'm going to attempt to, sort of, explain to you some of the things that are in these books. And you need to start with some history. The first book that I want to recommend to you is entitled Holy Blood, Holy Grail, by Baigent, Lincoln and Leigh. Baigent, Lincoln and Leigh. Holy Blood, Holy Grail. The next one is The Messianic Legacy. The Messianic Legacy, by the same authors: Baigent, Lincoln and Leigh.

And then there's another one called, The Temple and the Lodge. The Temple and the Lodge, by the same authors. And then the fourth one by these authors, also, is called The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception. The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception, by the same authors. Now, read those books. Read them in that order. The last one just came out. I just ordered it myself, have not read it, but I know, because I have read the other three, that I need to read it, and it's going to be just as revealing as the first three.

Now, none of these books put together the whole picture...I've done that. But they all have pieces to the puzzle that you need to find for yourself, so that you'll know that I'm not leading you down the garden path. That's important.

Now, in that series of books, folks, it outlines the history -- as they have discovered it -- of a secret society whose sole purpose is to protect the bloodline of the family which, traditionally, throughout history has claimed the divine right to rule the rest of us. It's important that you know about that family, because the same people (laughs) also rule this country, folks. They're all related, if you haven't figured that out yet. And if you want to find out how related they are, start looking into an organization, organized in [Cincinnati], called the Knights of the Golden Circle. The Knights of the Golden Circle.

The next book that I want you to pick up and read is entitled Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar, a biography by Michael Grant. Now, in this book, it outlines the...a lot of things about ancient Rome: their political machinery; the way that Rome was really ruled by families, which is going to be the same way in the New World Order -- I can guarantee you that. And it talks a lot about the ancient religions in this book. It's very revealing. It’s a biography, it’s factual; it's not fiction at all, and you need to read it.

The next book is an extremely important book and puts a lot of pieces of the puzzle together. And the person who wrote this book didn’t actually set out to even write about this subject. What he was doing was trying to research the Peasants' Revolt in England, and ended up writing a book about Freemasonry, because of what he found out in his investigation into the Peasants' Revolt in England. And that man is John J. Robinson. John J. Robinson. The title of the book is Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. I'm just going to read to you a little bit from the dust jacket here:

"Its mysterious symbols and rituals had been used in secret for centuries before Freemasonry revealed itself in London in 1717. Once known, Freemasonry spread throughout the world and attracted kings, emperors and statesmen to take its sacred oaths. It also attracted great revolutionaries such as George Washington and Sam Houston in America, Juárez in Mexico, Garibaldi in Italy, and Bolívar in South America. It was outlawed over the centuries by Hitler, Mussolini and the Ayatollah Khomeini. But where had this powerful organization come from? What was it doing in those secret centuries before it arose from underground more than 270 years ago? And why was Freemasonry attacked with such intense hatred by the Roman Catholic Church?

"This amazing detective story answers these questions and proves that the Knights Templar in Britain, fleeing arrest and torture by pope and King, formed a secret society of mutual protection that came to be called Freemasonry. Based on years of meticulous research, this book solves the last remaining mysteries of the Masons -- their secret words, symbols and allegories whose true meanings have been lost in antiquity. With a richly drawn background of the bloody battles, the opportunistic kings and scheming popes, the tortures and religious persecution that were the Middle Ages, it is an important book that may require that we to take a new look at the history of events leading to the Protestant Reformation."

And you’ve already heard (laughs) about that on this show. But you need this book, Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. Get it.

The next book is by the same author, John J. Robinson. After he wrote Born in Blood, he was intrigued, and so...He wrote Born in Blood about Freemasonry, and then he had to go back and research the history of the Knights Templar. And he wrote this book, entitled Dungeon, Fire and Sword. Dungeon, Fire and Sword: The Knights Templar in the Crusades, by John J. Robinson, author of Born in Blood. And I'm going to read to you from this fly leaf. But...yeah, I will.

"Over the past thousand years, the bloodiest game of king-of-the-hill has been for supremacy on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, the site of the ancient Temple of Solomon. This book recounts the stirring saga of the Knights Templar, the Christian warrior-monks who occupied the sacred Mount in the aftermath of the butchery of the First Crusade. Recruited to a life of poverty, chastity and obedience intended to lead only to martyrdom on the battlefield, they were totally dedicated to the pious paradox that the wholesale slaughter of non-believers would earn the eternal gratitude of the Prince of Peace.

"The Templars amassed great wealth, which they used to finance their two hundred years of war against the Muslims on the desert, in the mountains, and up the broad sweep of the Nile valley. The Templars’ reward for those two centuries of military martyrdom was to be arrested by pope and king, tortured by the Inquisition, and finally decreed out of existence. But their legend and legacy just would not die.

"In telling the incredible story of the Knights Templar, the author's clear explanation of the cultural and religious differences among the Templars’ enemies and friends in the Middle East gives fresh understanding of the people who populate this restless region. Here are the Sunnis and the Shiites, the Kurds and Armenians, the Arabs and Turks, who figure so prominently in today’s headlines. The similarity of their antagonisms today and those of eight hundred years ago are often so striking as to be eerie.

"Dungeon, Fire & Sword is a brilliant work of narrative history that can be read as an adventure story, a morality play, or a lesson in the politics of warfare."

But, folks, be careful when you read these books that you do not believe them blindly, for sometimes the authors are taken in by exoteric. But you still need to read them.

Don’t go away folks, we got to take our break. I'll be right back after this very short pause.

(break music: This Land is Your Land, performed by Lee Greenwood?)

And now, folks, we continue with our bibliography. I hope you've all got pen and paper and you're writing just as fast as you can. Don’t worry if you don’t get them all; if you just get some of them and start reading, that’s what counts. You can always order this tape and play it back, and copy them down at your leisure. At some future date we will print a bibliography, but right now, to tell you the truth, folks, we just don’t have time to do that. We're so much engaged in producing this radio show and researching, and I'm writing a second book and traveling and speaking. And, I'll tell ya something, right now I barely have time to talk to my wife, and she doesn’t appreciate to much, so (laughs) were going away this weekend.

The next book, The Future of Man. The Future of Man. Once again, The Future of Man, by Robert Klark Graham. Robert Klark Graham. You can order this book for seven dollars from S.C. Books, P.O. Box 1562, that P.O. Box 1562, Friendswood, Texas. Friendswood, Texas, 77546. Once again, seven dollars for this book from S.C. Books, P.O. Box 1562, Friendswood Texas, 77546.

Boy, I'm really going to have to hurry to get (laughs) a substantial amount of these books in. I hear somebody out there screaming and pulling their hair out, "I can’t possibly read all these books!" Yes, you can. I've done it. I've read every book in my library, folks, and my library is bigger than most city libraries. If I can do it, you can do it. The only thing that will stop you is because you don’t want to do it. And if you learn how to do productive research, some of them you don’t have to read the whole books, believe me. [sic] You just have to learn how to do that. But you have to understand what the context of the book is before you take anything out of context. You can get in big trouble by doing that, believe me.

Next book is A History of Mathematics. A History of Mathematics, second edition, by Carl B. Boyer. That’s A History of Mathematics, second edition, by Carl B. Boyer, B-O-Y-E-R. And the forward is by Isaac Asimov, and this is published by Wiley (W-I-L-E-Y). Should be fact, you should find that in most good book stores. It should be on the shelf.

Next one is the Dead Sea Scrolls. Be very careful about the Dead Sea Scrolls, folks, because everybody who's had their hands on them has been in the pay of the Rockefeller family, and the people who are translating them now are in the pay of the Rockefeller family. And they say that some of them have leaked out and that you're getting the real don’t know that. This could have been intentional leaks and nobody, none of us, know how to really translate these things. So, the Rockefellers, basically, are telling us what the Dead Sea Scrolls say, and I can just about tell you what they're gonna tell us right off the bat: That Jesus didn’t die, and all kinds of things, and, well, just wait and see. Just wait and see. This is called Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls. Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls, a reader from the Biblical Archeology Review, edited by Hershel Shanks. Hershel Shanks, and this is published by Random House.

Now, I'm gonna go a little speedy here because I haven’t much time left, folks. And I want you to get as many of these as you can. Next one is Pagans and Christians. Pagans and Christians. This book is worth its weight in gold. If you want to understand the early history of the church, and the antagonism between the early church, the early Christian church, and the pagan religions. Pagans and Christians, by Robin Lane Fox. Robin Lane Fox. Published by Knopf (K-N-O-P-F). Get it, read it. You won’t regret it.

The next one is...that alarm you just heard going off, that is the bread maker. (laughs) The loaf of bread is done and I'm fixing to have a hot slice of bread with fresh butter on it as soon as I finish this broadcast, folks. Preparing for the Twenty-first Century, Preparing for the Twenty-First Century, by Paul Kennedy, published by Random House. Now, that’s a modern book about modern things -- you still need to read it.

Next one is a very important book, printed in 1798. It has been reprinted by the Americanist Classics. The Americanist Classics, published by Western Islands, Boston & Los Angeles. You can find this book easily. It's called Proofs of a Conspiracy, by John Robinson A.M., 1798. Proofs of a Conspiracy, by John Robinson A.M., 1798. The Americanist Classics, published by Western Islands, Boston & Los Angeles. If you didn’t get anything else I have ever told you, get that book and read it.

Another one that's very important is called Time Bomb. Time Bomb. It will give you the roots of the Liberty Lobby and the spotlight and America Free Radio [sic], and will open your eyes on the Nazi influence in this country. Time Bomb, by Piller, published by Arco. Arco. And this is (laughs) very revealing.

Another one is...well, I don’t have it in front of me so I'm not gonna risk misquoting it. This one is The New World Order. The New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies. This is called The New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies, by William T. Still, William T. Still. And who published this book? Let me see here, Huntington House Publishers. Published by Huntington House Publishers' Pick it up, read it. Remember, there are a lot of books called the New World Order. That’s just one, and I'm going to give you another one with the same title here in a few minutes.

The next one is En Route to Global Occupation. En Route to Global Occupation: A High-Ranking Government Liaison Exposes the Secret Agenda of World Unification, by Gary H. Kah. Gary H. Kah, and this, also, is Huntington House Publishers.

The next one is pretty good, called Dark Majesty. Now this author, Texe Marrs, has published a plethora of books about the coming New World Order. Unfortunately, he really laces it with his own religious view points, and that’s OK because he has a lot of hard facts in here. But it tends to turn some people off and they don’t want to read the books because of that. If you're a Christian, you will have no problem reading this book; if you're not, you may have some problem with the religious beliefs of Texe Marrs. But if you can struggle with that and get through it, it will open your eyes and you will get a lot of good facts from this book. Its called Dark Majesty by Texe Marrs, The Secret Brotherhood and the Magic of a Thousand Points of Light. You see, he understands this quite a bit, like I do, only I don’t try to hoist my religion off on the rest of you. I'm a Christian, but I'm a different kind of Christian. I'm a Christian only in that I believe in the ten commandments as given to Moses by God, and the actual words attributed to Christ, whether he lived or died, or was the son of God or was just a man walking on this Earth. I believe that what he said is the most profound utterances ever spoken on this earth, whether they were ever spoken or not, folks. And I try to live my life by the ten commandments and by those words that Christ is credited with having spoken.

The next work is Satanic Voices: Ancient and Modern. Satanic Voices: Ancient and Modern, compiled by David Musa Pidcock. David Musa Pidcock. Now, this author is the head of the Islamic Party in Great Britain. So, again, you have his fundamental religious beliefs mixed in this book with a lot of cold, hard facts, which I have checked and double-checked and they're absolutely true. So if you, again, like with the other book, if you can get past the religious viewpoint of the author and look at what the history of this thing is, from his viewpoint and the facts that he delivers in this book, then (laughs) believe me, you'll be way ahead of the game. It's published by Mustaqim which, I believe, is the Islamic Party in Great Britain. And Mustaqim publishes Islamic art and literature.

Now, remember what I told you a long time ago. If you don’t want to read opposing viewpoints or books written by people who believe in different religious...or different gods than you do; if you don’t want to read something that was written by a blatant Communist, then I'm telling ya right now, you're going to be whipped in this war. You're gonna be beat down and enslaved in this war, because you won't know anything about your enemy, you won't really know what the truth is, because you’ll be stuck, held prisoner, in the dogma of your own beliefs. And I mean that, folks. A lot of us have been believing a lot of things for all of our lives that are absolute, total lies. And once you start your own research you’ll find that out. And you're gonna be probably as angry as I have been at times in my life. And you may do some stupid things like I have done at times in my life. Which is one reason why none of you should ever, ever put me up on a pedestal. Because I'm just like you. (laughs) I'm just like you. I'm not any different. And I may be a lot more human than most, because I've gotten in touch with something inside that lets me feel and express my anger and my emotions and things that most people aren’t in touch with. So when I'm angry, I scream and yell, but five minutes later it's all over with. (laughs) Don’t put me on a pedestal. I'll fall off immediately, and you will all be disappointed. So, if you don’t do it, nobody will be disappointed.

The next book is called, The Unseen Hand. The Unseen Hand: An Introduction to the Conspiratorial View of History, by A. Ralph Epperson, my good friend who lives in Tucson, who’s going to be a guest on this program here in about a week or two. And were going to try to do, maybe three or four episodes of the Hour of the Time with A. Ralph Epperson. This book, The Unseen Hand, is an incredible piece of work and I highly recommend it.

The next book is also by A. Ralph Epperson, and I've used this book extensively during our revelation of the Mystery Schools and Mystery Babylon in our series, our ongoing series. It’s called The New World Order. The New World Order, by A. Ralph Epperson. Get these books, read them. If you cant find them, just wait. He'll be on this show pretty soon, and we'll give you a phone number and an address and a price, and you can send off and get them directly from him.

This next book is extremely revealing. In fact, anything that this author has ever written you should read. In fact there’s a center, a study center set up in Los Angeles called the Philosophical Society which was founded by Manly P. Hall. The name of the author, Manly P. Hall, 33rd degree Freemason. Anything that he's ever written, get it and read it. This particular book is called Freemasonry of the Ancient Egyptians. Freemasonry of the Ancient Egyptians. Another good one to read that he wrote is called, The Lost Keys of Freemasonry, and anything else that you can find that has been written by Manly P. Hall, get it and read it. Make sure you understand the symbology don’t get caught up in the exoteric bullshit, because that’s the way they hide the real meaning.

Another one, because a lot of the Mystery traditions is wrapped up in what they call the Kaballah, which is the ancient the Jewish version of the Mystery Schools. And don’t get me wrong, folks. Not all Jews are involved in this, not all Catholics are involved in it, not all Protestants are involved in it, not all blacks, not all Arabs, not all whites, but some of every one of them are deeply involved in this. And they are the people who worship Lucifer. If you worship Lucifer, you can be a member, too. This book is called Judaica. Judaica: The Blackwell Dictionary of Judaica. This is The Blackwell Dictionary of Judaica, by Dan Cohn-Sherbok. Dan Cohn-Sherbok, and it's published by Blackwell, Blackwell Reference, printed in Great Britain by TJ Press, Pat Stone limited, Pat Stone, Cornwall, but you can still order this from any bookstore. The Blackwell Dictionary of Judaica, by Dan Cohn-Sherbok. Make sure you get it, because a lot of the Kabalistic words needs definitions, and you can find them in this book.

Next one is A Dictionary of Freemasonry. A Dictionary of Freemasonry: A Compendium of Masonic History, Symbolism, Rituals, Literature, and Myth. A Dictionary of Freemasonry, by Robert Macoy. Robert Macoy. This book is worth its weight in gold if you know how to, again, interpret the symbolism of the exoteric meaning [inaudible] the exoteric writing. Some of you already know what I'm talking about, some of you have no idea what I'm referring to, but you will find out once you get into this.

Another book that’s worth its weight in gold is called The Mystery Religions. The Mystery Religions and Christianity. The Mystery Religions and Christianity, by Samuel Angus. Samuel Angus. Published by University Books. Published by University Books, The Mystery Religions and Christianity, by Samuel Angus. And we want to thank our member, Spencer. Thank you very much. Spencer supplied us with this volume.

Next one's been around for a long time, but, again, it's worth its weight in gold. But you have to understand, again, the symbolism to read these books. A lot of these books were not meant for us to read and understand. They are meant for an adept, an initiate, to understand. This is A History of Secret Societies, published by Citadel. A History of Secret Societies, published by Citadel, by Arkon Daraul. Arkon Daraul (D-A-R-A-U-L). Arkon (A-R-K-O-N D-A-R-A-U-L), Citadel Press New York. A History of Secret Societies. Again, worth its weight in gold.

The next one is The Occult Conspiracy. The Occult Conspiracy. Now, this book was written by someone who is in sympathy with the Secret Societies and may be a member, although I doubt, from reading doesn’t sound like he is. But he is defiantly in sympathy with them. So be careful when you read this that you don’t get the wrong message, The Occult Conspiracy: Secret Societies, Their Influence and Power in World History, by Michael Howard. That’s Michael Howard, and this is published by Destiny Books, Rochester, Vermont. And the logo of Destiny Books is the Sun and the Moon. (laughs) That should tell you something.

Next one is America's Secret Assignment...excuse me, I'm wrong. America's Assignment with Destiny. There’s two books, and I had this confused with another one. The other one's called Americas Secret Destiny. Throw that one out. That’s total crap. (laughs) That is exoteric from the word "go," all the way to the end. This one, though, you need to read, America's Assignment with Destiny, by Manly P. Hall, and you will not believe what your eyes are telling you that your brain is reading. For this is an incredible book. It has incredible admissions, and you will begin to understand certain things that happened in history that you could never understand before. America's Assignment with Destiny, by Manly P. Hall, and this is published by PRS, whatever that is...let me look in here and find out, so that you will know. Philosophical -- I should have known, I feel stupid now -- illustrated, second printing, Philosophical Research Society Inc. This is Manly P. Hall's organization. America's Assignment with Destiny, by Manly P. Hall. Get it and read it.

Another one that's extremely important that you read this book. Many people pass it by, snub their nose at it. Don’t ever do that, folks. You're making a big mistake. This is The New Age Bible. The New Age Bible, by Dr. John Rodgers, The Hidden Truth Revealed. Just the symbology on the cover will send you reeling after you've listened to the episodes of the Mystery Religion of Babylon that we've already revealed on this show. This is published by Inner Light Publications. Inner Light Publications. The New Age Bible by Dr. John Rodgers, The Hidden Truth Revealed. Get it and read it, folks.

Another one you need to read, which will connect someone else with all of this, if you can understand the symbology, again, is called The Mormon Murders. The Mormon Murders, by Steven Naifeh, and Gregory White Smith. A True Story of Greed, Forgery, Deceit, and Death. Read this book.

Now, here's a catalogue you need to get, because you can get a lot of books that you need from this organization:

It's catalogue 2A. Catalogue 2A. Send six dollars to HELP RESEARCH, mailing address is P.O. Box 70. That’s P.O. Box 70, 8349 Lafayette Street. 8349 Lafayette Street, Mokelumne Hill, California. M-O-K-E-L-U-M-N-E. That’s M-O-K-E-L-U-M-N-E, Mokelumne Hill, California, 95245. That’s HELP RESEARCH, P.O. Box 70, 8349 Lafayette Street, Mokelumne Hill, California, 95245.

Good night, folks. I hope you get these books. I hope you start your own library, and I hope you wake up. God bless each and every single one of you.

(closing music: America, the Dream Goes On, performed by John Williams and the Boston Pops)
Posted by Pat Anderson at 7:21 AM

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

KGC Knights of the Golden Circle KGC

KGC Knights of the Golden Circle KGC

The Knights of the Golden Circle was a secret order, comprised of Southern Sympathizers during the Civil War. Their members were known as Copperheads. During that time of the War between the States, the word Copperhead, was considered a sinister word. It was a word used to cover all groups of Peace Societies and even militant groups that were working to overthrow the government. At one time they had been called traitors to the Union.
Innocent bystanders thought they were simply people fighting for freedom of action and the pursuit of their own convictions.
The KGC members were a feared people. They were organized in 1854, with their headquarters in Cincinnati. They had secret symbols, passwords and other conspiratorial paraphernalia. They created real violence for many years. The management of the Knights, spread like wildfire all through the South. Their many rituals turned quickly to violence and conquest as they attempted to establish a slave empire encompassing Florida in the Southern United States, the West Indies, Mexico and parts of Central America.
This was an area comprised of nearly 2400 square miles, -hence the name Golden Circle.
The Knights had hoped to control the commerce of the area and have a virtual monopoly on the worlds supply of tobacco, sugar in the hopes of the South’s rising to power again in the future. To accomplish this mission, meant finding the ability to accumulate millions of dollars, to include gold coins, goods and weaponry, and have it set aside for later use. The Knights buried their accumulated possessions in elaborate man-made mine shafts, in many of the Southern States, and also included several hidden caches in the Western United States. South Dakota is one of those states. It is estimated that 4 million dollars in gold, weapons and the like was hidden in the western part of South Dakota. Several of these caches have been located, but many still remain as an unfound secret. There have been lives lost in the attempt of recovering these caches. The majority of these caches employ unique death traps to keep them out of the hands of treasure hunters. There are several words and statements that have been used in reference the KGC. They were known to be the wealthiest and the deadliest, most secretive underground organization in the history of the world. They were closely associated with the Ku Klux Klan. So you wonder, why haven’t I read about them in my history books, or for that matter even heard about them. That’s a hard question to answer. The stories may have been purposely omitted, but why? It is known that the vast amount of money and valuables these die hard southern rebels were accumulating was for the purpose of restarting the Civil War, but it never happened. Instead, most all the wealth that they had accumulated, still lies buried in many different spots throughout the United States. Some of these caches have been located, but many more are still secreted away. Jesse James, a devoted train robber, was a full fledged member of the KGC. They used many signs, clues, carvings and even Latin phrases, Code words and even buried gun barrels(pointing a certain direction). Animals carved in stone(especially Turtles), and tree trunks forced to point to a certain direction.

For further information try:
for a starter, and then


should you stumble upon one of these caches. They were so placed so as to cause the death of an unsuspecting treasure hunter.
Along with Jesse James other members included Jefferson Davis, Bedford Forrest, and William Quantrill (leader of the Confederate guerilla outfit Quantrill's Raiders, with whom James rode). Some believe the society was created by the notorious Albert Pike, the subject of many a Masonic conspiracy theory. The South did in fact have an extensive intelligence infrastructure and Albert Pike was a key figure in that intelligence network. The only real news here is the claim that Jesse James was a key figure within that intelligence community as well and of course, the business about The Knights of the Golden Circle.
The James Gang's train and bank robberies, it is claimed, were fundraising operations to finance the activities of the Knights of the Golden Circle, as well as to wreak general havoc with the plans of the Northern reconstructionists. James is also said to have been involved in supplying weapons and training to the Plains Indians, as a means of waging proxy war against the Union Army.
The Knights of the Golden Circle was "the most powerful subversive organization ever to operate within the United States." (Getler & Brewer, op. cit.) First, they schemed to have Abraham Lincoln elected president, so as to inflame the South and cause secession. Later, their subordinate, John Wilkes Booth, assassinated Abraham Lincoln and with KGC assistance, Booth escaped. (what was behind that?) The KGC did not officially disband until 1908.
According to Norma Cox, in her book, The New Spoilers, she has the 12 charter members of the Golden Circle as including Jefferson Davis, Bedford Forrest, Jesse James, and William Quantrill. Some say Albert Pike was the creator of the Knights of the Golden Circle, but Cox doubts it. "Important to remember about such secret organizations is the fact that only the men at the top know the truth..."
Unfortunately for our tale, The Knights of the Golden Circle are linked to the infamous Ku Klux Klan, an organization responsible for many hateful acts over the years


Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Stand Watie (1806-1871)

Stand Watie

Born at Oothcaloga in the Cherokee Nation, Georgia (near present day Rome, Georgia) on December 12, 1806, Stand Watie's Cherokee name was De-ga-ta-ga, or "he stands." He also was known as Isaac S. Watie. He attended Moravian Mission School at Springplace Georgia, and served as a clerk of the Cherokee Supreme Court and Speaker of the Cherokee National Council prior to removal.
As a member of the Ridge-Watie-boundinot faction of the Cherokee Nation, Watie supported removal to the Cherokee Nation, West, and signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835, in defiance of Principal Chief John Ross and the majority of the Cherokees. Watie moved to the Cherokee Nation, West (present-day Oklahoma), in 1837 and settled at Honey Creek. Following the murders of his uncle Major Ridge, cousin John Ridge, and brother Elias Boundinot (Buck Watie) in 1839, and his brother Thomas Watie in 1845, Stand Watie assumed the leadership of the Ridge-Watie-Boundinot faction and was involved in a long-running blood feud with the followers of John Ross. He also was a leader of the Knights of the Golden Circle, which bitterly opposed abolitionism.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Watie quickly joined the Southern cause. He was commissioned a colonel on July 12, 1861, and raised a regiment of Cherokees for service with the Confederate army. Later, when Chief John Ross signed an alliance with the South, Watie's men were organized as the Cherokee Regiment of Mounted Rifles. After Ross fled Indian Territory, Watie was elected principal chief of the Confederate Cherokees in August 1862.
A portion of Watie's command saw action at Oak Hills (August 10, 1861) in a battle that assured the South's hold on Indian Territory and made Watie a Confederate military hero. Afterward, Watie helped drive the pro-Northern Indians out of Indian Territory, and following the Battle of Chustenahlah (December 26, 1861) he commanded the pursuit of the fleeing Federals, led by Opothleyahola, and drove them into exile in Kansas. Although Watie's men were exempt from service outside Indian Territory, he led his troops into Arkansas in the spring of 1861 to stem a Federal invasion of the region. Joining with Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn's command, Watie took part in the battle of Elkhorn Tavern (March 5-6, 1861). On the first day of fighting, the Southern Cherokees, which were on the left flank of the Confederate line, captured a battery of Union artillery before being forced to abandon it. Following the Federal victory, Watie's command screened the southern withdrawal.
Watie, or troops in his command, participated in eighteen battles and major skirmishes with Federal troop during the Civil War, including Cowskin Prairie (April 1862), Old Fort Wayne (October 1862), Webber's Falls (April 1863), Fort Gibson (May 1863), Cabin Creek (July 1863), and Gunter's Prairie (August 1864). In addition, his men were engaged in a multitude of smaller skirmishes and meeting engagements in Indian Territory and neighboring states. Because of his wide-ranging raids behind Union lines, Watie tied down thousands of Federal troops that were badly needed in the East.
Watie's two greatest victories were the capture of the federal steam boat J.R. Williams on June 15, 1864, and the seizure of $1.5 million worth of supplies in a federal wagon supply train a the Second battle of Cabin Creek on September 19, 1864. Watie was promoted to brigadier general on May 6, 1864, and given command of the first Indian Brigade. He was the only Indian to achieve the rank of general in the Civil War. Watie surrendered on June 23, 1865, the last Confederate general to lay down his arms.
After the war, Watie served as a member of the Southern Cherokee delegation during the negotiation of the Cherokee Reconstruction Treaty of 1866. He then abandoned public life and returned to his old home along Honey Creek. He died on September 9, 1871.
Source: Macmillan Information Now Encyclopedia, "The Confederacy", article by Kenny A. Franks


Friday, September 10, 2010

The Spread of Freemasonry Among the American Indians of the United States by Dr. Patrick Neal Minges

The Spread of Freemasonry Among the American Indians of the United States
by Dr. Patrick Neal Minges

On January 20, 1791, a curious assembly of Americans appeared before the brethren of the Prince of Wales Lodge #259 in London, England. The minutes of the Lodge recorded the event: William Augustus Bowles, a Chief of the Creek Nation, whose love of Masonry has induced him to wish it may be introduced into the interior part of America, whereby the cause of humanity and brotherly love will go hand in hand with the native courage of the Indians, and by the union lead them on to the highest title that can be conferred on man, to be both good and great, was proposed by the Right Worshipful Master, with the Approbation of the Prince to be admitted an Honorary Member of this Lodge. He was seconded by the Secretary, and received the unanimous applause of the whole Lodge.1 Though Bowles was not actually an American Indian, he was considered among the Chiefs of the Creek Nation by the Indians themselves and was also appointed by the Grand Lodge of England to the "provincial grand master of the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians." 2 Bowles was accompanied by three Cherokee and two Creek headman and it is reported that they visited the Grand Lodge of England as well as several other lodges. Though Bowles and his associates were "lionized by London society in 1791," he and his associates were neither first Native American Freemasons nor even the first Indian Freemasons to visit England. That honor belongs to Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea), the principal War Chief of the Mohawk Nation who also translated the 1 William R Denslow, Freemasonry and the American Indian (St Louis: Missouri Lodge of Research, 1956, 125. 2 Denslow, 58.

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Gospel of Mark and the Book of Common Prayer into his language. He received his degrees in Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge No. 417 at some point before the onset of the Revolutionary War. When he sailed to England in 1776, Brant was presented to the court, wined and dined at the expense of the government, and had his picture painted by one of the outstanding artists of England. The British government, who sought to bestow degrees and Masonic titles as a means of soliciting support among influential colonists pulled out all stops for Brant; it is given on good authority that Brant received his Masonic apron at the hands of King George the Third. 3 The British appeal worked perfectly. Brant spent much of his time trying to amass the support of his people, but many natives resented his fidelity to the British Crown. In fact, revisionists often hold Brant accountable for dividing his people and destroying the League of Six Nations. While nations such as the Mohawks and the Seneca sided with Britain; the Oneida and the Tuscarora supported the Americans throughout most of the Revolutionary period. 4 Even though he sided with the British, his loyalties were never unclear; on several occasions, Brant spared the lives of fellow Freemasons and yet enemies when at the point of despair, they presented "the great mystic appeal to a Mason in the hour of danger." 5 In case it has missed your grasp, we appear to have plunged right into the deep with respect to the spread of Freemasonry among American Indians; that is with intent. We are not addressing "Indian Masonry." There have been numerous treatises written the 3 Denslow, 101-102.4 History Television [Canadian Broadcasting Corporation], "Joseph Brant" [] (Accessed September 13, 2003) 5 Sidney Hayden, in Cornelius Moore, Leaflets of Masonic Biography, (n.p., 1863), 27.

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attempt to find relationships between the philosophies and practices of the indigenous peoples and their corresponding principles and practices within Freemasonry. There have also been quite a few discussions of how travelers to the Western Frontier encountered native peoples who hailed them with the signs and symbols of the brotherhood. Equally so, many persons have found affinities between Indian "secret societies" and "fraternal orders" and those of Freemasonry; even the great Arthur C. Parker, himself a Freemason, stated that: The Masonry of the Indians as philosophers dealing with moral truths grew out of their experiences with nature and the actions of humankind. The wise men of the tribes knew that a band of men pledged to uphold morality and to enact rituals its advantage would constitute a dynamic influence.6 However, in his work Indian Masonry, Robert Wright comes to the following conclusion: There us no Indian Masonry in that small and narrow sense which most of us think of; that is one who pays lodge dues, wears an apron like ours gives signs so nearly like ours that we find him perforce a Mason in any degree or degrees we know, and which degrees we are prone to watch, just as we do a procession of historical floats, which casually interest us, and maybe a little more so if we can but secure a place at the head of the procession, the true meaning of which we have but a faint idea about. This makes our own Masonry as meaningless as the interpretation of Indian signs by an --deleted-- trapper. 7
What we are addressing is the spread of Freemasonry among those persons of American Indian heritage and brought up within the culture and traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in general and the United States in particular. It is quite important to stress at this point that there is no such thing as an "American Indian" in the generic sense in which they have easily definable common traits and characteristics any more than we can state that the Irish, the German, and Italian have the same. The native peoples of the Americas had thousands of mutually unintelligible languages and 6
Arthur C. Parker, American Indian Freemasonry (Buffalo, Buffalo Consistory, A. A. S. R. N. M. J. U. S. A., 1919), 36p. 7 Robert Wright, Indian Masonry. Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, IL., 1905.

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distinct social, political, and cultural practices that defined and often set themselves in opposition to other indigenous persons in the midst and from afar.
Today there are about 500 American Indian peoples, each with its own language and cultural traditions rooted in their historical experience with their surrounding environment, the creatures that inhabit it, and whatever divine force they believe made it all possible. Why would persons of Native American descent wish to become associated with the philosophical traditions and ritual practices of Freemasonry? To me, there is a very simple answer -- for the very same reasons that every other person who has chosen to become affiliated with the craft. I will no more attempt to articulate these reasons for you that I would ask you to expose the inner workings of your own heart and soul to a curious and exploratory, but often --deleted--, interloper. What is important is that countless American Indians across history have chosen to become Freemasons and continue to do so even unto this very day. They are our brothers in every sense of the word and whatever political, religious, and even cultural differences that they express from us are eclipsed by the three great lights of our brotherhood.
There can be but one simple answer to this question as to why Native Americans join our brotherhood… "so to act, that the principle of his actions may be exalted to a law of nature; to act in that manner only in which he thinks that He who has given to nature its immutable laws, would have compelled him to act, had He chosen to introduce compulsion into the realm of mind, in order to realize his design."8 That they have done so is indisputable. Some of the most important leaders of the various nations that make up our indigenous peoples have chosen to become a part of Freemasonry. Tecumseh, a Shawnee prophet who reportedly "was made a Mason while on a visit to Philadelphia," was the leader of a Pan-Indian movement in the eighteenth century. Alexander McGillivray, a mixed blood leader of the Muskogee, and Louis Annance, of the Alnombak people of the Abenaki Nation, were skilled political leaders. Red Jacket, famous orator of the Seneca and leader of the traditionalist resistance among the Iroquois, was a Freemason. His nephew, General Ely S. Parker, was General U.S. Grant's Adjutant and drew up the conditions of surrender at Appomattox. He went on to 8 The Masonic Monthly, "The Lesson Taught By The Three Great Lights"
[] (Accessed September 13, 2003).

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be the First American Indian Commissioner of Indian Affairs under Grant. Leaders on both sides of the Civil War in the Indian Territory including John Ross, Opothle Yahola, Elias Boudinot, John Jumper, Peter Pitchlyn, Stand Watie, the last Confederate general to surrender. Coming forward into history, we find Carlos Montezuma, doctor and spokesman for the Yavapai Indian; Arthur C. Parker, Scientist, Scholar and Literary Figure from the Seneca Nation; Philip DeLoria, Sioux leader and Episcopal Priest; and last but certainly not least Will Rogers,
American humorist and philanthropist. 9 Though many of these names may not be familiar to you, they can be considered among the illuminati of the First Nations of the United States. The story of the first American Indian Freemasonic lodges has yet another interesting aspect. J. Fred Latham, in The Story of Oklahoma Masonry, reports that not only were Native "chiefs" made Masons in the East, but that because both the Native American leaders and the military officers who removed them during the "Trail of Tears" were Masons, it made the process of removal "more orderly." 10 General Winfield Scott, a Freemason, who presided over the removal of the Cherokee, gave explicit orders to pursue this distasteful activity with civility, "Every possible kindness...must therefore be shown by the troops, and if, in the ranks, a despicable individual should be found capable of inflicting a wanton injury or insult on any Cherokee man, woman, or child, it is hereby made the special duty of the nearest good officer or man, instantly to interpose, and to seize and consign the guilty wretch to the severest penalty of the laws. 11 When asked by the leaders of the Cherokee Nation to postpone removal because of drought and sickness among the Cherokee, General Scott again showed compassion for his fraternal brothers. Negotiating with General Scott was Chief John Ross, a Master Mason in good standing with the Olive Branch Lodge of the Free and Accepted Masons in Jasper, Tennessee. 12 9 Patrick Minges, "Famous Native American Freemasons" [] (Accessed September 13, 2003). 10 Latham, 2.11 Winfield Scott quoted in Grace Steele Woodward, The Cherokees (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), 204. 12 Woodward, 214.

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Finally, when it appeared that his troops could not handle the process of removal as well as the Cherokee themselves, Scott agreed to a plea from Chief John Ross to allow the Cherokee to manage removal themselves. When Andrew Jackson, Former Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, heard of Scott's brotherly relief, he wrote, "I am so feeble I can scarcely wield my pen, but friendship dictates it and the subject excites me. Why is it that the scamp Ross is not banished from the notice of this administration?" 13 Upon arrival in the new territory, former members of the Freemasonic lodges from the East began to organize the craft in their new home. J. Fred Latham describes this particular phenomenon in The Story of Oklahoma Masonry: The history of the Indian Territory, and indeed that of Freemasonry in the present state of Oklahoma, is so closely interwoven with that of the Five Civilized Tribes it would be difficult-- almost impossible -- and entirely undesirable to attempt to separate them. 14
A number of the ministers, merchants and military personnel were members of the craft. Along with the many Indians inducted into the craft, they began to have meetings throughout the Indian Territory. These meetings moved from very informal social groupings into fellowship meetings where Masons met and enjoyed fraternal discussions. Applications for authority to organize lodges in several places were made but urgent domestic problems prevented the satisfactory organization of lodges. According to J. Fred Latham, members of the craft took an active part in the stabilization of the community through the organization of law enforcement and through their activity in the political affairs of the Five Nations. 15 In 1848, a group of Cherokee Freemasons made application to Grand Master R.H. Pulliam of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas and were granted a dispensation to formulate a "blue lodge" in the Cherokee capital 16 Brother George Moser, Secretary and Historian of 13 John P. Brown, Old Frontiers (Kingsport: Tennessee, 1938), 511.14 J. Fred Latham, The Story of Oklahoma Masonry (Oklahoma City: Grand Lodge of Oklahoma, 1957), 8.15 Latham, 5. 16 Albert Mackey describes a "blue lodge" as: "A symbolic Lodge, in which the first three degrees are conferred, is so called from the color of its decorations." A "blue lodge" is the common determination for

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the Cherokee lodge presents the information as follows, "Facts as taken from the proceedings of the Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of Arkansas show that the Committee on Charters and Dispensations did, on November 7, 1848 at the hour of 9:00a.m., recommend that a charter be granted to `Cherokee Lodge' at Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, and that it be given the number `21'". 17 The officers were sworn in at Supreme Court Headquarters on Keetoowah Street on July 12, 1849; it was the first lodge of Indian Freemasons established in the United States. 18 In 1852, the Cherokee National Council donated several lots in Tahlequah to be used jointly by the Masonic Lodge and the Sons of Temperance for the construction of a building to house their respective organizations. The building was erected in 1853, and owned jointly by the two organizations; the Sons of Temperance 19 occupied the first floor and Cherokee Lodge #21 occupied the second floor. The lodge building was used for a number of community services, including lodge meetings, temperance meetings, educational instruction, and church meetings; later, because of the noise, both organizations used the upper floor, leaving the lower floor for church services and public meetings. 20
Freemasonry flourished among the Native Americans in Indian Territory, leading the Grand Master of Arkansas to comment upon his "red brethren" in 1855: this lodge as opposed to lodges that grant higher degrees such as the Scottish Rites or York Rites. (Mackey, 120) 17 George Moser, quoted in Latham, 6.18 T.L. Ballenger, History of Cherokee Lodge #10, T.L. Ballenger Papers, Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, IL., 5; J. Fred Latham, The Story of Oklahoma Masonry (Oklahoma City: Grand Lodge of Oklahoma, 1978) 5- 8. 19 The Sons of Temperance modeled its constitution on those of the Freemasons and Odd Fellows and based their organization around simple initiation rituals. As time progressed, the Sons of Temperance and organizations such as it developed increasingly complicated rituals even further aligned with those of the Freemasons. (Carnes, 8) 20 Ballenger, 6. It is important to note that the Cherokee Indian Baptist Association, consisting of six "colored churches" held its first organizational meeting in the Cherokee Masonic Lodge in 1870. [J.M.Gaskins, History of Black Baptists in Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Messenger Press, 1992), 118)]

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All over the length and breadth of our state the (Masonic) Order is flourishing, and amongst our red Brethren, in the Indian Territory, it is taking deep hold, and now embraces a goodly number of Lodges and Brethren. The members of these Lodges compare very favorably with their pale-face neighbors. In fact, it is reported of them that they exemplify practically the Masonic teachings and ritual by living in the constant discharge of those charities and moral virtues so forcibly inculcated in our lectures, thereby demonstrating to all that Masonry is not only speculative, but that it is a living practical reality; of great utility to the human race, and of eminent service to a social community. 21
Freemasonry was indeed "taking deep hold." From the very first lodge formed among the Cherokee in Tahlequah, the brotherhood had spread among missionaries, merchants, and Native Americans throughout Indian Territory. Reverend John Bertholf, member of Cherokee Lodge #21, relocated to the Creek Nation and was appointed Superintendent of the Asbury Mission in Eufaula in 1859. George Butler, government agent and junior warden of Cherokee Lodge #21, became one of the charter members of the military base lodge at Fort Gibson Lodge #35. Doaksville Lodge #52 was organized in the Choctaw Nation and led by Chief Peter Pitchlyn, Sam Garvin, Basil Laflore, plantation owner Robert Jones, and also American Board missionary Cyrus Kingsbury. Walter Scott Adair, Worshipful Master of Cherokee
Lodge #21, left Lodge #21 to organize Flint Lodge #74near the Baptist Mission deep in Keetoowah country in the southeastern corner of the Cherokee Nation. Joseph Coodey, nephew of John Ross and Junior Warden of Cherokee Lodge #21,resettled in the Creek Nation at North Fork Town near Eufala. 22 In the Creek Nation, Benjamin Marshall, George Stidham, and Samuel Checote, all affiliates of the Asbury Mission, formed Muscogee Lodge #93 at the Creek Agency near the border of the Cherokee Nation. One of the early members of Muscogee Lodge #93 was a prominent 21 Ballenger, 5.22 G.W. Grayson, A Creek Warrior for the Confederacy: The Autobiography of Chief G.W. Grayson, W. David Biard, ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988), 127.

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traditional leader (and relative of Asi Yahola, i.e., Osceola ) 23 by the name of Opothle Yahola. 24 When the winds of the Civil War hit the Indian Territory, it sent a bitter chill through the lodges. In 1855 Brother John Ross, the Chief of the Cherokee Nation, discovered the emergence of "a secret society organized in Delaware and Saline Districts" dedicated to the promotion of slavery and the removal of abolitionist interests from the Cherokee Nation. 25 According to Ross, at the core of this "sinister plot" were so-called "Blue Lodges" established in the Indian Territory by officials from Arkansas. 26 Many of the pro-slavery factions in the Cherokee Nation had ties to Arkansas and it was believed by Ross that these elements were using the "Blue Lodges" associated with the Arkansas Grand Lodge to "create excitement and strife among the Cherokee people." 27 The "Blue Lodges" were so closely affiliated with the Southern Methodist church that some considered them to be the spiritual arm of the organization, "The [Southern] Methodists take slavery by the hand, encourage it, speak in its favor, and brand all those who oppose it with opprobrious epithets. As they support slavery, of course slavery supports them." 28 23 Asi Yahola (Osceola) was a prominent leader of the African American/ Seminole resistance movement in Florida. He was married to an African American runaway slave. Some reporters state the cause of the Second Seminole War was the seizure of Osceola's African wife by merchants who sought to sell her back into slavery. Osceola was finally murdered following treachery by federal authorities. In a practice which has become common among Florida authorities, his brain was "donated to science" and kept on a shelve for many years. 24 Denslow, 70-75. For information on Opothle Yahola, see John Bartlett Meserve, "Chief Opothleyahola" Chronicles of Oklahoma 10 (Winter, 1931): 439-452; Clee Woods, "Oklahoma's Great Opothle Yahola "North South Trader 4, (January-February): 22-36; Mrs. Clement Clay, "Recollections of Opothleyahola "Arrow Points 4 (February 1922): 35-36. 25 John Ross to Evan Jones, May 5, 1855, "Correspondence of Missionaries to Native Americans, [microform], 1825-1865," American Baptist Historical Society, Rochester, N.Y. 26 I use the term "Blue Lodges" because that is what most of the scholars, including McLoughlin and Mooney use to describe these lodges. However, the fact that Ross was a Freemason meant that he understood the term "Blue Lodge" quite well and would not have used it unadvisedly. In all probability, these "Blue Lodges" were Freemasonic lodges tied to the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. 27 John Ross to Evan Jones, May 5, 1855, "Correspondence of Missionaries to Native Americans, [microform], 1825-1865," American Baptist Historical Society, Rochester, N.Y. 28 John B. Jones, July 12, 1858, "Correspondence of Missionaries to Native Americans, [microform], 1825- 1865," American Baptist Historical Society, Rochester, N.Y.

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History records the "Blue Lodges" as being the seat of the pro-slavery movement, but this appears to be an inaccuracy rooted in a too-convenient association of the "Blue Lodges" with the pro-slavery movement. It is easy to see from the membership roll of Cherokee Lodge #21 that there were also members of the Ross Party who belonged to these so-called "Blue Lodges." It seems that there was a split within the Freemasonic lodges within Indian Territory along the lines of party affiliation related to the efforts of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas to use the lodges to promote the issue of "Southern Rights." 29 Some members of the lodges were opposed to the efforts of the Arkansas Grand Lodge, as revealed in a later discussion by Lodge historian T. L. Ballenger: There seems to have developed some misunderstanding between the mother Lodge and Cherokee Lodge at that time, the exact nature of which the records fail to reveal: possibly it was a coolness that had grown out of different attitudes toward the war. The Cherokees were divided, some of them fighting for the North and some for the South. It happened that the leading members of the Lodge sympathized with the North. 30 As a result of the split within the lodges within Indian Territory or perhaps precipitating the split, some of the members of the "Blue Lodges" became associated with a secessionist secret society by the name of the "Knights of the Golden Circle." Other members of the "Blue Lodges" within the Indian Territory became associated with a traditionalist secret society in the Cherokee Nation entitled the Keetoowah Society. Throughout the duration of the Civil War, these two competing "secret societies" fought tooth and nail for the fate of the Indian territory and the bitter struggle between these two 29 This opinion is supported by evidence that the Grand Lodge of Arkansas refused to recognize the charters of many of the lodges in Indian Territory following the cessation of the Civil War. In addition, the Grand Lodge of Arkansas considered many of the charters "forfeited" and would only grant the lodges new charters if the were reorganized under a different name. Cherokee Lodge #21 became Cherokee Lodge #10when it was reorganized after repeated attempts for recognition in 1877. Fort Gibson Lodge # 35 became Alpha Lodge #12 in 1878. Flint Lodge #74 became Flint Lodge # 11 in 1876. (Starr, 185). Muskogee Lodge#93 and Choctaw Lodge #52 also forfeited their charter following the Civil War. The Grand Lodge which refused the recognition was led by J.S. Murrow, the "Father of Oklahoma Masonry," a Baptist minister who was a Confederate States Indian Agent during the Civil War. (Latham, 10; West, 103) 30 T.L. Ballenger, History of Cherokee Lodge #10, T.L. Ballenger Papers, Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, IL., 12; "Pin Indians" in Robert Wright, Indian Masonry, (n.p., 1905) Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, IL., 105.

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groups was carried out with a ferocity that left not even innocent persons unharmed. The effect upon the Indian Territory was devastating: The events of the war brought to them more of the desolation and ruin than perhaps to any other community. Raided and sacked alternately, not only by Confederate and Union forces, but also by the vindictive ferocity and hate of their own factional divisions, their country became a blackened and desolate waste. Driven from comfortable homes, exposed to want, misery, and the elements, they perished like sheep in a snowstorm. Their houses, fences, and other improvements were burned, their orchards destroyed, their flocks and herds were slaughtered or driven off, their schools broken up, their schoolhouses given to the flames, and their churches and public buildings subjected to a similar fate; and that entire portion of their country which had been occupied by their settlements was distinguishable from the virgin prairie only by the scorched and blackened chimneys and the plowed but now neglected fields. 31 When the war was over and nations such as the Cherokee needed healing, they elected Bro. William Potter Ross to be the new Principal Chief of the Reunified nation. One of the founding members of Cherokee Lodge #21, he was to go on to become the Worshipful Master of the lodge in 1851 -- a time before the lodge would split over the issues that ultimately led to the Civil War. In addition, William P. Ross had been the leader of the reconciliation of the Cherokee Nation following the Treaty of 1846:He (Ross) and the other headmen of the Cherokee nation were at the capital to arrange a treaty made necessary by the late enforced removal of their tribe from Georgia to the Indian Territory. These headmen were arrayed in two hostile factions, and the negotiations were at a standstill. But at one of the meetings of Federal Lodge (Federal Lodge #1,Washington, D.C.), the rival leaders, all Freemasons, were brought together by the exertions of Worshipful Master S. Yorke and other members, and the treaty was successfully completed. 32 31 Charles Royce, "Cherokee Nation," Fifth Annual Report (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, n.d.), 376. 32 "History of Federal Lodge #1," quoted in Denslow, 183. William Potter Ross was raised to the Third Degree on April 25, 1848 in Federal Lodge #1 in Washington, D.C. [Denslow, 183].

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In spite of their political, social, and party differences, one of the key elements that had brought together the disparate elements of Cherokee Society had been the interest in and promotion of brotherhood by the Freemasonic lodges in the Cherokee Nation. Ross used this background to his advantage. Many of the leaders of the Keetoowah Society and the Knights of the Golden Circle were former Freemasons in the lodges of the Indian Territory. Many of the government agents, military officials, religious authorities, and influential citizens of the Indian Territory were also Freemasons. That William P. Ross was a power broker and a conciliatory force in the Cherokee Nation under the auspices of the Freemasonic brotherhood is a factor that cannot be ignored. 33 However, Freemasonry among Native Americans is not just an historic phenomenon. In Oklahoma today, there are Freemasonic lodges in nearly every Indian Nation; the Order of the Eastern Star is also quite popular. The Oklahoma Indian Degree team is perhaps the most well-traveled of group of Freemasons in the United States; they tour the nation constantly and sometimes internationally. Dressed in the full regalia of their American Indian heritage, they raise Masons to the third degree in our ancient and esoteric ritual. The Oklahoma Masonic Indian Degree Team was organized in 1948 after the death of Brother Will Rogers. The team currently consists of 15 active members, 11 of which are Past Masters. Nine recognized tribes are represented: Apache, Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Oneida, Osage, Ottawa, Seminole, and Sycamore. States visited include: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, 33 William R. Denslow, in his work Freemasonry and the American Indian, describes Ross's influence, "In later years, passions broke all bounds and some of the darkest pages of Cherokee history were written. In retrospect, the influence and principles of Freemasonry can be seen as the greatest healer of these old wounds within the Cherokee family. This fact is emphasized by the thought of Chief William P. Ross, presiding in the East over a Cherokee lodge, while the men around the altar would have thought it a patriotic duty to slay him only a short time before. The roster of the Cherokee lodge is a revelation to the student of the times, and, if it were not for its undisputed authority, it would hardly be believed in this generation." (Denslow, 69).

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Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachuetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York and Texas. Oklahoma lodges represented are: Broken Arrow #423, Cherokee #10, Delta #425, Daylight #542, Dustin #336, Ottawa #492,Sapulpa #170 and Skiatook #416. One of the most interesting of all groups of Indian Freemasons is the Akdar Shrine Indian Dance Unit of Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Its members come from diverse nations such as the Cherokee, Navajo, Quapaw, Creek, Shawnee, Apache, and Kiowa. What unites these men of divergent nations are two things – their love of Freemasonry and their love of traditional forms of dance. They regularly perform traditional dances at special events, pow-wows, and shrine circuses in Oklahoma and throughout the Southwest and Midwest. The Akdar Indians, being the only all-Native American unit in Shrinedom, not only share a common heritage, but also share a common bond with their fellow Nobles everywhere — to help spread the word about the free medical care offered by Shriners Hospitals for Children. More than 40 years ago, in 1954, the unit was established as the Akdar Indian Patrol with about 20 members; today, Akdar Indians' 50 members represent six Shrine Temples and 20 Tribes from North America. Representatives of the five civilized tribes of Oklahoma — Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole — along with the Comanche and Apache Indians, make up the majority of unit members. According to Bill Tyndall, an Omaha Indian from Akdar Temple, a recent change in the unit's by-laws allows Nobles from any Shrine Temple to join, as long as they are Native Americans. Not only do they participate in many of the Temple's fund-raising activities for Shriner's Hospitals, but they also raise money by hosting an annual Indian dinner with Native American food, and an arts and crafts show. They put on educational dances, explaining the types of dances and the clothing worn by each dancer.

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Throughout the year, members perform for the general public and for various Shrine functions. Their most enjoyable performances, according to Tyndall, are the ones held at the Shriner's Hospitals. "It's there that we get to see first-hand what our hospitals are all about and we can give the kids an up-close look at real Indians and the costumes that they wear," he explained. A unique aspect of the Akdar Indians is that the Nobles are often joined by their family members — women and children — when they perform some of their traditional dances, especially at the Shriner's Hospitals. One of the members has commented that one of the greatest benefits of being in the unit is being able to help children while educating others about his culture. "We love to promote Native American culture," here marked. "The non-Indian sees us as we are shown on TV. But what we are trying to do is educate people about what we do and what we are about." That is, of course, in addition to informing the public that Shriner's Hospitals provide free medical care to children in need. As we meet together here today in Columbus on this January day some two hundred plus years after Brother Bowles and his collected Indians met before their astonished British brethren, another collection of Americans is again meeting a body of astonished British brethren. Next Monday, the Oklahoma Masonic Indian Degree Team will performing demonstrations at the Surrey Secretaries' Golden Jubilee Lodge No. 9764 meeting at Surbiton and at a special meeting to be held at Croydon in the Province of Surrey England on Tuesday 27th January 2004. Just as their brothers some two hundred years ago welcomed these unusual brethren from across the seas, these modern day travelers will be equally greeted. Rest assured that the more we learn about Native Americans and their involvement in Freemasonry, the more that we learn that their interests, inclinations, and excitement about the craft spurs from the same quest for wisdom and enlightenment that dwells within us all. Though it easy enough to put upon fanciful notions about secret signs, secret societies, and the incorporation of "pagan" rituals and symbols into the ancient and accepted order, nothing could be further than the truth. Such creations have

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always been the practices of small minds and have often been the bane of the existence of reasonable and intelligent practitioners of all of the higher orders of religion and philosophy. The world will be a better place when we put myths such as these to rest.

Thursday, September 9, 2010


By: Delos Wayne Schrader
THE PRESS-NEWS, Osage, Iowa, February 1, 1973
(Remembrances of Otranto – Jesse James – Cole Younger)

EXCERPT: "In researching my forthcoming book, “Jesse James – Man and Myth,” I discovered that in the summer of 1876, a year before Otranto’s birth, Cole Younger and his desperate men followed the Cedar River through Mitchell County enroute to a linkup with Frank and Jesse James in Mankato, Minn. The James boys had headed east from Deadwood City in Dakota Territory.

From Mankato the combined band made its unsuccessful assault on the First National Bank in Northfield, Minn, which was owned by former Union General “Spoons” Butler. Instead of pilfering $500,000 in gold, the James-Younger band met bloody disaster.

Now, historians killed off blood-thirsty Cole Younger at least three times, but he actually lived until 1950 when he died at the incredible age of 127* in Nashville, Tenn., under the alias of Col. James B. Davis. Among his papers he described the trip taken 74 years earlier from Kansas City via Mitchell County to Mankato. He had scribbled, “South of the Minnesota line (Otranto?), we ran into a tame steer along the river. We cut his throat and roasted him over a fire in the woods. It was a hearty meal”.

So if your great-grandfather or grandfather lost a steer, blame it on Cole Younger.

A former Mitchell County farm boy, Delos Wayne Schrader.

P.S. For your information, I attended schools in Otranto, Mitchell, and graduated from St. Ansgar High School. I’m now a reporter with The Los Angeles Herald-Examiner."

*Note: says Cole was born January 15, 1844 and died on March 21, 1916 (at the age of 72). Had he been born in 1844 and died at age 127, he would have lived until 1971. If he died in 1950 at age 127, he would have been born in 1823 and been about 37 at the beginning of the Civil War, and in his 50's while hanging around with the James Gang.

Note: Delos Schrader was born in 1917 and died in 1982.

Reproduced with the approval of the: Mitchell County Historical Society
From “The Story of Mitchell County 1851 - 1973”
Transcribed (June 2003) by: Neal Du Shane

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Seventh Star of the Confederacy: Texas during the Civil War

Kenneth W. Howell, ed. Seventh Star of the Confederacy: Texas during the Civil War. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2009. xiii + 348 pp. $34.95 (cloth), ISBN 978-1-57441-259-8.

Reviewed by Christopher B. Bean (East Central University)
Published on H-CivWar (September, 2010)
Commissioned by Hugh F. Dubrulle
The Lone Star and the Stars and Bars

Excerpt: "Quite possibly the strongest part of the book is Barr’s historiographical essay..... which highlights the major studies on Texas during the Civil War published in the last two decades. Also important are essays by Linda S. Hudson and John Gorman, which examine the Knights of the Golden Circle in Texas before the war and the frontier defense units during the conflict."

Citation: Christopher B. Bean. Review of Howell, Kenneth W., ed., Seventh Star of the Confederacy: Texas during the Civil War. H-CivWar, H-Net Reviews. September, 2010.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Knights of the Golden Circle The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008

Knights of the Golden Circle
The Columbia Encyclopedia,
Sixth Edition 2008 Copyright

Knights of the Golden Circle
Secret order of Southern sympathizers in the North during the Civil War. Its members were known as Copperheads. Dr. George W. L. Bickley, a Virginian who had moved to Ohio, organized the first "castle," or local branch, in Cincinnati in 1854 and soon took the order to the South, where it was enthusiastically received. Its principal object was to provide a force to colonize the northern part of Mexico and thus extend proslavery interests, and the Knights became especially active in Texas. Secession and the outbreak of the Civil War prompted a shift in its aims from filibustering in Mexico to support of the new Southern government. Appealing to the South's friends in the North, particularly in areas that were suffering economic dislocation, the order soon spread to Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri. Its membership in these states, where it was enthusiastically received. Its principal object was to provide a force to colonize the northern part of Mexico and thus extend proslavery interests, and the Knights became especially active in Texas.
Secession and the outbreak of the Civil War prompted a shift in its aims from filibustering in Mexico to support of the new Southern
government. Appealing to the South's friends in the North, particularly in areas that were suffering economic dislocation, the order soon spread to Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri.
Its membership in these states, where it became strongest, was largely composed of Peace Democrats, who felt that the Civil War was a mistake and that the increasing power of the federal government was leading toward tyranny. They did not, however, at this time engage in any
treasonable activity. In late 1863 the Knights of the Golden Circle was reorganized as the Order of American Knights and again, early in
1864, as the Order of the Sons of Liberty, with Clement L. Vallandigham, most prominent of the Copperheads, as its supreme commander. Only a minority of its membership was radical enough-in some localities-to discourage enlistments, resist the draft, and shield deserters. Numerous peace meetings were held. A few extreme agitators, some of them encouraged by Southern money, talked of a revolt in the Old Northwest, which, if brought about, would end the war. Southern newspapers wishfully reported stories of widespread disaffection, and John Hunt Morgan's raid (1863) into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio was undertaken in the expectation that the disaffected element would rally to his standard. Gov. Oliver P. Morton of Indiana and Gen. Henry B. Carrington effectively curbed the Sons of Liberty in that state in the fall of 1864. With mounting Union victories late in 1864, the order's agitation for a negotiated peace lost appeal, and it soon dissolved.

Friday, September 3, 2010

New KGC website

Jay Longley has created a new KGC research website and it can be found at:

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Knights' Gold


Here is a Word Doc I found online. It is the synopsis of the first chapters of a book called "Knights' Gold" In it the hero discovers that he has "he inherited a position with the Knights of the Golden Circle" and that they are "the secret financiers of the Confederacy, (who) still exist to the present day."
I have included the article below- ccc

Dear Writers’ Cramp Group,
At our last meeting I introduced to you my novel entitled Knights’ Gold. In the preamble little Freddy Garner is introduced to the Wisdom Tree by his father and grandfather. It is a mysterious tree with an odd shape and with letters and symbols carved into it. Freddy is told it is a map and a dictionary and will be taught more about the tree when he is older.

Since I am skipping to Chapter 39 for your critique I want to give you a summary of the preceding chapters. Please keep in mind that this story takes place in the early 1980’s

Chapter One begins with Fred Garner as President of the Oregon State Senate. He gets an early morning call from an assistant that another senator, Senator Roner, is accused of using his office for personal gain. Garner calls Roner to tell him his actions cannot be tolerated. Roner takes offense and threatens him back.

Garner tries to smooth things over with the press but is also plans on reducing Roner’s influence. Also, during this time Garner meets with newly elected Senator Clint McGregor and gives him some guidance on how to conduct himself in the legislature.

McGregor meets with Senate Historian Cy Edwards to get help with a speech and is surprised to learn of Edward’s interest in the Confederacy.

After the legislature adjourns for the year Garner gets a note which appears to have been written by is deceased father and told to register at a motel under a false name. He does so but foolishly registers under a name that is nearly identical to another senator. He meets with a young man briefly in his room until police come and arrest him for registering under a false name.

He pays a small fine but a statewide scandal ensues. He is accused of having a homosexual affair. The senator whose name was “used,” along with Senator Roner, call a press conference and demand Garner ousted. The debate over the incident goes on for months without resolution.

Garner learns he inherited a position with the Knights of the Golden Circle, a secrete organization designed to protect the Confederate treasury. His father was killed before he could explain to him the importance of the Wisdom Tree and his responsibility to the organization. As a historian Garner does a great deal of research and learns about the KGC and realizes some of the treasure is buried on his property. He also finds evidence that the KGC, the secret financiers of the Confederacy, still exist to the present day.

Garner questions his loyalties. He is not a Confederate. He wants to honor his family and respect history. He would also like to get rich. But he also understands that he is in great danger, particularly if he steals the gold.

He finds some small deposits of treasure on his land and is warned by the young man he met at the motel, Gil Diamond, not to take any more. Defying the warning, he recruits Clint McGregor to be his partner because he has an interest in treasure hunting and has special skills in black ops by virtue of his Vietnam War experience.

Roner continues to harass Garner and threatens to have him removed from office. The governor meets with Garner and learns that the governor and the senate historian are also members of the Golden Knights and the governor will take care of his political career by appointing him Director of Commerce if he does not get reelected. Soon after, Roner dies mysteriously of anthrax poisoning. Garner believes he was killed by the Golden Knights.

Evidently Gil Diamond was stealing some of the treasure too. Garner and McGregor find him nailed to the Wisdom Tree, dead and with a warning pinned to his chest. Inside his mouth they find the treasure map to the mother lode in Nekia, South Carolina.

Garner and McGregor plan to attend a legislative conference in Columbia, South Carolina, to put themselves near the treasure. After they get there they scout out the area and make plans to recover the buried treasure. They soon realize it will be a mammoth undertaking for two people, so rent heavy equipment for a nighttime excavation.

They dig down to the treasure chests and begin loading the boxes in a truck when they are attacked by the Knights. They hide inside the excavation and fire back. When it appears they will be defeated, only a matter of time, another paramilitary unit appears on the scene – the Liberty League. It is another secret organization that has existed since the Civil War, just like the Knights of the Golden Circle. The Liberty League is the sworn enemy of the Knights.

The two armies battle it out with Garner and McGregor caught in the middle hiding in a hole. Eventually the two armies decimate each other with only one person surviving from the Liberty League.

Garner and McGregor recruit him to help them recover more of the loot. The treasure, however, is booby trapped. When the flood and landslide start, McGregor pushes the Liberty League officer under the mud slide and saves himself along with much of the treasure.

They sell most of the gold and silver coins to a Florida deep sea treasure hunting outfit that set up offshore bank accounts for them. McGregor’s girlfriend, who has an expertise in international banking, verifies the accounts and in the process gets control of most of the money.

Garner dangerously returns to Oregon thinking he is wealthy. McGregor said he is taking a vacation in the Caribbean. The Knights of the Golden Circle want their treasure back and Garner and McGregor died.
Chapters 39 – 50 follow


Trevanion Theodore Teel

Trevanion Theodore Teel, (1824–1899), Confederate Army officer and lawyer, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on August 18, 1824, the son of Dr. Benjamin van der Mark and Ann Gilmore (Weir) Teel. In 1828 the family moved to Rushville, Illinois. Mrs. Teel's ill health caused the family to move to Lexington, Tennessee, in 1830, but three years later they returned to Rushville, where young Teel attended school. In 1839 he began to read law in the office of a local attorney, but the family's move to Weston, Missouri, later that year interrupted his studies. In June 1841, however, Teel was licensed to practice law in Platte City, and in 1843 he established a practice in St. Joseph. In July of that year he traveled to the Rocky Mountains to perform some legal service for the American Fur Company and was captured and held briefly held by the Yankton Sioux. In 1844 he moved to Evansville, Indiana, but, as he was not yet twenty-one, could not practice law there and so established himself as a commission merchant. On June 8, 1846, Teel enlisted in Capt. William Walker's Company K of Col. William A. Bowles's Second Indiana Infantry regiment for service in the Mexican War. He was elected the company's first sergeant and later promoted to first lieutenant. He took part in Gen. Zachary Taylor's campaign in northern Mexico and received two wounds at the battle of Buena Vista. After being discharged at New Orleans on June 28, 1847, Teel set out in November for Saltillo, Coahuila, where his father was serving as a surgeon. At the end of the war the Teel family moved to San Antonio, Texas, and subsequently to Lockhart, where, in October 1848 Teel was admitted to the bar. He married Emily F. Winans in Bastrop on April 10, 1856, and shortly thereafter moved to San Antonio, where he won a considerable reputation as a criminal attorney.

In San Antonio Teel joined the Charles Bickley Castle of the Knights of the Golden Circle. On February 16, 1861, he mustered his KGC company into state service; the unit was under Col. Benjamin McCulloch when Gen. David E. Twiggs surrendered the federal property at San Antonio to Texas state troops. Teel later sent detachments to garrison camps Hudson and Stockton and forts Clark, Duncan, and Lancaster. His company, reorganized at Fort Clark on May 1, 1861, was designated Light Company B, First Artillery, and mustered into Confederate service for twelve months. Teel was elected captain. The company was part of the force that compelled the surrender of federal troops at San Lucas Springs on May 9 and accompanied Col. John R. Baylor to Fort Bliss on July 10, 1861. During part of August Teel was commandant of Fort Fillmore, New Mexico, and later was appointed judge of the First Judicial District of Arizona, a post he held until December. He also served briefly as adjutant of the Army of New Mexico despite his hospitalization in August for "convalescent phthisis." Teel's company saw action at the battle of Valverde, where Teel was slightly wounded, and the battle of Glorieta, as well as a number of minor skirmishes in the New Mexico campaign. As a component of Col. William Steele's Seventh Texas Cavalry regiment, Teel's company was one of the last Confederate units to abandon New Mexico and far West Texas. Before retreating from Albuquerque, Teel's men buried eight of their cannons near the town plaza; in 1889 he returned to recover them. During the evacuation Teel served as regimental provost marshal. His account of the New Mexico campaign, in which he places the blame for Confederate failure squarely on the shoulders of General Henry H. Sibley, was published in the classic Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (1887–88). Teel was promoted to major of artillery on February 21, 1862. In the spring of 1862 Jordan Bennett replaced him as battery commander, and the battery was assigned to Earl Van Dorn's Army of the West, where it saw service in Arkansas, Missouri, and Mississippi. After the war Teel returned to the practice of law and gained great prominence in criminal defense. He claimed to have defended more than 700 clients charged with capital offenses and to have saved them all from execution. Teel was the father of two children. He became a Mason in 1849 but was expelled from the lodge in 1854. He died of a heart attack in El Paso on July 6, 1899, and was buried in Odd Fellows Cemetery, San Antonio.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lewis E. Daniell, Personnel of the Texas State Government, with Sketches of Representative Men of Texas (Austin: City Printing, 1887; 3d ed., San Antonio: Maverick, 1892). Martin Hardwick Hall, The Confederate Army of New Mexico (Austin: Presidial Press, 1978). Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (4 vols., New York: Yoseloff, 1956). Marcus J. Wright, comp., and Harold B. Simpson, ed., Texas in the War, 1861–1865 (Hillsboro, Texas: Hill Junior College Press, 1965).

Thomas W. Cutrer

KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE.- Texas State History Archives Online

The Knights of the Golden Circle (K.G.C.), a secretive organization created in 1854, proposed to establish a slaveholding empire encompassing the southern United States, the West Indies, Mexico, and parts of Central America. Centering on Havana, this empire would be some 2,400 miles in diameter—hence the name Golden Circle. Leaders of the K.G.C. argued that their empire would have a virtual monopoly on the world’s supply of tobacco and sugar and perhaps cotton and have the strength to preserve slavery in the South from constant attacks by northern Abolitionists.

George W. L. Bickley, a Virginia-born doctor, editor, and adventurer, was one of the founders of the K.G.C. According to the records of the K.G.C. convention held in 1860, the organization was “originated at Lexington, Kentucky, on the fourth day of July 1854, by five gentlemen who came together on a call made by Gen. George Bickley….” Bickley then occupied himself with other projects during the mid-1850s, and the K.G.C. did not become active until 1859–1860 when he undertook an organizing campaign across the southern states. As he promoted his organization, Bickley focused on the annexation of Mexico as an essential first step. Newspaper editors across the lower South generally reacted favorably to his message, and Texas proved notably strong in its support. Within a relatively brief time, he organized thirty-two “castles” or local chapters in various cities, including Houston, Galveston, Austin, San Antonio, Marshall, Jefferson, and La Grange. Many prominent Texans joined the K.G.C., and Bickley even courted Gov. Sam Houston, who reportedly became an initiate. Houston, however, regardless of his interest in annexing Mexico to the United States, could not accept the K.G.C.’s anti-Union stance and refused to support its schemes.

In the spring of 1860, a small group of K.G.C. members gathered at the Rio Grande for an invasion of Mexico, but Bickley failed to appear with a large force that he claimed to be assembling in New Orleans, and nothing came of the venture. A group of Knights in New Orleans then publicly attacked him as a liar, coward, and inept leader. Bickley responded by calling a general convention of the K.G.C., which met in Raleigh, North Carolina, on May 7–11, 1860. The convention confirmed Bickley as leader and published a lengthy address to the people of the southern states that remains the most reliable statement of the K.G.C.’s organization and goals.

Like many other secretive societies, the K.G.C. had an elaborate ritual with codes, signs, and passwords, and complicated plans for its military and governing operations. Knights were grouped into three divisions—military, commercial and financial, and political—each of which was in turn divided into two classes. For example, the military division comprised the Foreign Guard, those men who wished “to participate in the wild, glorious and thrilling adventures of a campaign in Mexico” and the Home Guard, men who would support military efforts from home. Bickley created, on paper at least, an army of 16,000 men.

The K.G.C. developed a second plan for invading Mexico later in 1860, but it proved abortive as attention turned to the presidential election and the secession movement that followed immediately across the lower South. Unionists in Texas claimed that the K.G.C. played a role in reducing the vote for Constitutional Unionists (see CONSTITUTIONAL UNION PARTY) in November 1860 and in keeping Unionist voters from the polls when the state held a referendum on secession in February 1861. Once Texas seceded in March 1861, individual Knights participated in the actions that displaced the authority of the United States in Texas, leading some Unionists such as James P. Newcomb to emphasize the role of the organization in destroying the Union. The truth of all these charges cannot be determined with certainty, but secession definitely represented majority opinion across the state regardless of the K.G.C.’s role.

During the Civil War, leaders of the K.G.C. served in the Confederate Army not as members of the society’s military division per se, but simply as soldiers in the southern cause. Elkanah Greer of Marshall, for example, served with distinction as colonel of the Third Texas Cavalry, a unit in the cavalry brigade commanded by future governor L. Sullivan Ross. The K.G.C. itself probably received greater attention during the war for its supposed role in a treasonous plot variously called the “Northwest Conspiracy,” the “Copperhead Movement,” and similar names in the old Northwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio. Joseph Holt, United States Judge Advocate General, submitted a report in October 1864 that warned Secretary of War Edwin Stanton about the danger of this plot, which he attributed at times to the K.G.C. and at other times to different treasonous groups. If such a plot existed, nothing came of it, suggesting that the rumors were just that or that the K.G.C. did not have the strength attributed to it in such reports.

Victory by the Union in the Civil War destroyed the cause for which the K.G.C. had been created and, therefore, ended its life. Bickley, who served as a surgeon in the Confederate Army before being arrested as a spy in Indiana in July 1863 and held until October1865, died in August 1867. Reports of K.G.C. activity circulated for a few more years, but there is no dependable evidence that the organization survived the war in any meaningful way. Perhaps the greatest historical significance that can be assigned to the K.G.C. is its contribution to creating the emotional excitement necessary to persuading southerners to rebel against the United States.

Secretive organizations such as the K.G.C. create an atmosphere of conspiracy, of claims and charges that cannot be proven true but cannot be proven untrue either. It should come as no surprise then that the K.G.C. has drawn the interest of numerous investigators who claim that it was a vast conspiracy that drew inspiration from groups such as the European Knights Templar, Scottish Rite Masons, and the Sons of Liberty. These investigators also allege that many famed characters from the Civil War era, including John Wilkes Booth and Jesse James, belonged to and acted under the influence of the Knights. Some argue that the Knights buried millions of dollars in stolen U.S. Army payrolls in locations across the Southwest, where the money (now worth billions) remained under guard into the mid-twentieth century and perhaps even now. These conspiracy stories associated with the Knights of the Golden Circle are now part of the historical record associated with the organization, but none of them can be reliably documented.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:Ollinger Crenshaw, “The Knights of the Golden Circle: The Career of George Bickley,” American Historical Review, 47 (October 1941). Roy Sylvan Dunn, “The KGC in Texas, 1860-1861,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 70 (April 1967). Donald S. Frazier, Blood & Treasure: Confederate Empire in the Southwest (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996). K.G.C., Records of the KGC Convention, 1860, Raleigh, N.C. (http://gunshowonthenet/AfterTheFact/KGC/KGC0571860.html), accessed August 27, 2010. Joseph Holt, Report of the Judge Advocate General on “The Order of American Knights,” alias “The Sons of Liberty.” A Western Conspiracy in aid of the Southern Rebellion (Washington, DC: Union Congressional Committee, 1864); Warren Getler and Bob Brewer, Rebel Gold: One Man’s Quest to Crack the Code Behind the Secret Treasure of the Confederacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004).

Randolph B. Campbell